# JavaScript: Maximum Call Stack Size Exceeded

## JavaScript: Maximum Call Stack Size Exceeded

JavaScript’s “Maximum call stack size exceeded” error happens when a function continually calls itself, resulting in an endless loop. When the JavaScript engine runs out of memory, it cannot add any more functions to the call stack and generates this error.

This error is typically brought on by a recursive function that is calling itself excessively. Functions that call themselves repeatedly do so until they reach a stopping point. The function will keep calling itself endlessly if the stopping condition is not met, which will result in the call stack overflowing and the error happening.

This is an illustration of a recursive function that determines a number’s factorial:

```function factorial(n) {
if (n === 1) {
return 1;
}
return n * factorial(n - 1);
}```

This function calculates the factorial of a number by calling itself with a smaller number until it reaches the stopping condition of `n === 1`. However, if you call this function with a large number, it will eventually cause the “Maximum call stack size exceeded” error.

To fix this error, you need to modify the recursive function so that it either reaches the stopping condition or avoids calling itself too many times. One way to do this is to use an iterative loop instead of recursion. Here’s an example of the same factorial function implemented using a loop:

```function factorial(n) {
let result = 1;
for (let i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
result *= i;
}
return result;
}```

Instead of utilizing recursion, this function uses a for loop to get the factorial of a given number. The possibility of producing an infinite loop and resulting in the “Maximum call stack size exceeded” error is reduced by doing this.

Using tail recursion is another method for avoiding this problem. The last operation in the function is the recursive call in a special kind of recursion known as tail recursion. By doing this, the current stack frame can be reused by the JavaScript engine rather than having to create a new one, which allows for code optimization. This is an illustration of the factorial function utilizing tail recursion:

```function factorial(n, acc = 1) {
if (n === 1) {
return acc;
}
return factorial(n - 1, n * acc);
}```

This function calls itself with a smaller integer and a new accumulator value in order to keep track of the current product using an accumulator parameter. By doing this, it prevents the danger of resulting in the “Maximum call stack size exceeded” error and avoids building a new stack frame for each recursive call.

In conclusion, a recursive function that is calling itself excessively often is what typically results in the “Maximum call stack size exceeded” error in JavaScript. You must change the function to either reach the stopping condition or prevent calling itself too frequently in order to correct this problem. You can prevent this mistake and make sure that your JavaScript code functions correctly by using iterative loops or tail recursion.